Year 9 Program

Year 9 Program

Year 9 at Central Midlands Senior High School consists of a combination of the MESH subjects at school (Mathematics, English, Science and HaSS), Health and Physical Education as well as a variation of the following options:

  • Drama
  • Media
  • Visual Arts
  • ICT
  • D&T
  • Textiles
  • Home Economics (Food Science)
  • Automotive


The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning denote the degree of complexity in how students will engage with the mathematical concepts. In Year 9 the conceptual complexity is as follows:

  • understanding includes describing the relationship between graphs and equations, simplifying a range of algebraic expressions and explaining the use of relative frequencies to estimate probabilities and of the trigonometric ratios for right-angle triangles
  • fluency includes applying the index laws to expressions with integer indices, expressing numbers in scientific notation, listing outcomes for experiments, developing familiarity with calculations involving the Cartesian plane and calculating areas of shapes and surface areas of prisms
  • problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving surface areas and volumes of right prisms, applying ratio and scale factors to similar figures, solving problems involving right-angle trigonometry and collecting data from secondary sources to investigate an issue
  • reasoning includes following mathematical arguments, evaluating media reports and using statistical knowledge to clarify situations, developing strategies in investigating similarity and sketching linear graphs.


In Year 9, students interact with peers, teachers, individuals, groups and community members in a range of face-to-face and online/virtual environments. They experience learning in familiar and unfamiliar contexts, including local community, vocational and global contexts.

Students engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment. They interpret, create, evaluate, discuss and perform a wide range of literary texts in which the primary purpose is aesthetic, as well as texts designed to inform and persuade. These include various types of media texts, including newspapers, film and digital texts, fiction, non-fiction, poetry, dramatic performances and multimodal texts, with themes and issues involving levels of abstraction, higher order reasoning and intertextual references. Students develop a critical understanding of the contemporary media and the differences between media texts.

Literary texts that support and extend students in Years 9 and 10 as independent readers are drawn from a range of genres and involve complex, challenging and unpredictable plot sequences and hybrid structures that may serve multiple purposes. These texts explore themes of human experience and cultural significance, interpersonal relationships, and ethical and global dilemmas within real-world and fictional settings and represent a variety of perspectives. Informative texts represent a synthesis of technical and abstract information (from credible/verifiable sources) about a wide range of specialised topics. Text structures are more complex and include chapters, headings and subheadings, tables of contents, indexes and glossaries. Language features include successive complex sentences with embedded clauses, a high proportion of unfamiliar and technical vocabulary, figurative and rhetorical language, and dense information supported by various types of graphics presented in visual form.

Students create a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive types of texts including narratives, procedures, performances, reports, discussions, literary analyses, transformations of texts and reviews.


In Year 9, students consider the operation of systems at a range of scales. They explore ways in which the human body as a system responds to its external environment and the interdependencies between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. They are introduced to the notion of the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and how this system can change through nuclear decay. They learn that matter can be rearranged through chemical change and that these changes play an important role in many systems. They are introduced to the concept of the conservation of matter and begin to develop a more sophisticated view of energy transfer. They begin to apply their understanding of energy and forces to global systems such as continental movement.

Humanities and Social Sciences

In Year 9, Humanities and Social Sciences consists of Civics and Citizenship, Economics and Business, Geography and History.

Students develop increasing independence in critical thinking and skill application, which includes questioning, researching, analysing, evaluating, communicating and reflecting. They apply these skills to investigate events, developments, issues and phenomena, both historical and contemporary.

Students continue to build on their understanding of the concepts of the Westminster system, democracy, democratic values, justice and participation. They examine the role of key players in the political system, the way citizens’ decisions are shaped during an election campaign and how a government is formed. Students investigate how Australia’s court system works in support of a democratic and just society.

Students are introduced to the concepts of specialisation and trade while continuing to further their understanding of the key concepts of scarcity, making choices, interdependence, and allocation and markets. They examine the connections between consumers, businesses and government, both within Australia and with other countries, through the flow of goods, services and resources in a global economy. The roles and responsibilities of the participants in the changing Australian and global workplace are explored.

The concepts of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change continue to be developed as a way of thinking, which provides students with an opportunity to inquire into the production of food and fibre, the role of the biotic environment and to explore how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places in a variety of ways. Students apply this understanding to a wide range of places and environments at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.

Students develop their historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts are investigated within the historical context of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. They consider how new ideas and technological developments contributed to change in this period, and the significance of World War I.

Health and Physical Education

In Year 9, the content provides for students to broaden their knowledge of the factors that shape their personal identity and the health and wellbeing of others. They further develop their ability to make informed decisions, taking into consideration the influence of external factors on their behaviour and their capacity to achieve a healthy lifestyle. They continue to develop knowledge, skills and understandings in relation to respectful relationships. With a focus on relationship skills that promote positive interactions, and manage conflict.

Students focus on elements of speed and accuracy in different movement environments, while continuing to develop the efficiency of specialised movement skills. They explore ways to evaluate their own and others’ performances through analysis of skills and movement patterns using basic biomechanical concepts. They transfer previous knowledge of outcomes in movement situations to inform and refine skills, strategies and tactics to maximise success.

Opportunities are provided for students to refine and consolidate skills and strategies for effective leadership and teamwork, and consistently apply ethical behaviour across a range of movement contexts.

The Health and Physical Education curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop, enhance and exhibit attitudes and values that promote a healthy lifestyle.

Technologies - Design and Technology

In Year 9, students have opportunities to learn about technologies in society at least once in the following technologies contexts: Engineering principles and systems; Food and Fibre production; Food Specialisations; and Materials and Technologies Specialisations. Students are provided with opportunities to design and produce products, services and environments.

Students have opportunities to use design and technologies knowledge and understanding, processes and production skills, and design thinking to produce solutions to identified needs or opportunities. They work independently and collaboratively. Students specifically focus on solutions, taking into account social values; economic, environmental and social sustainability factors. They have the opportunity to use creativity, innovation and enterprise skills with increasing confidence, independence and collaboration.

Using a range of increasingly sophisticated technologies, including a variety of graphical representation techniques, students have opportunities to generate and represent original ideas and production plans in

two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations.

Students identify and establish safety procedures that minimise risk and manage projects. They learn to transfer theoretical knowledge to practical activities.

Technologies - Digital Technology

In Year 9, learning in Digital Technologies focuses on further developing understanding and skills in computational thinking such as precisely and accurately describing problems and the use of modular approaches to solutions. It also focuses on engaging students with specialised learning in preparation for vocational training or learning in the senior secondary years.

Students have opportunities to analyse problems and design, implement and evaluate a range of solutions.

Students consider how human interaction with networked systems introduces complexities surrounding access to data of various types.

Students explore data collection methods and use structured data to analyse, visualise, model and evaluate objects and events.

Students learn how to develop multilevel abstractions; identify standard elements, such as searching and sorting in algorithms; and explore the trade-offs between the simplicity of a model and the faithfulness of its representation.

When defining problems students consider the functional and non-functional requirements of a solution through interacting with the users and reviewing processes. They consolidate their algorithmic design skills to incorporate testing. Students develop solutions to problems and evaluate their solutions and existing information systems based on a set of criteria. They consider the privacy and security implications of how data are used and controlled, and suggest how policies and practices can be improved to ensure the sustainability and safety of information systems.

When creating solutions individually, collaboratively and interactively for sharing in online environments, students respect the ownership of information.

Technologies - Food Science

In Year 9 students will explore and develop food related interests and skills. They will learn about how food impacts us on the every-day basis and the importance of overall health and wellbeing.

Students will organise, implement and manage food production as well as understand food availability, safety and quality.

Technologies - Automotive

In the Automotive course students develop skills and understandings relating to the component parts, accessories, systems and technologies of the automotive vehicle. Students develop the principles underpinning the operation of vehicle systems and subsystems. They also develop the knowledge and skills needed to service, maintain and repair these systems. Students develop effective communication, teamwork skills and environmental awareness when developing solutions to planning and managing automotive vehicle systems.

The Arts - Drama

In Year 9, Drama students will be given opportunities to refine their knowledge and skills to present drama as an event, by safely using processes, techniques and conventions of drama. Students develop drama based on devised drama processes and appropriate, published script excerpts (e.g. Australian drama pre-1960 or world drama), using selected drama forms and styles. Student work in devised and scripted drama is the focus of reflective and responsive processes supported through scaffolded frameworks using drama terminology and language.

Teachers are required to address knowledge and skills in Drama through one or more of the forms and styles below. Other forms and styles may be used in addition to teach knowledge and skills in Drama.

Drama forms and styles for Year 9: melodrama, neoclassical drama, multi-formed devised drama commedia dell’arte, or Kabuki theatre.

The Arts - Media

In Year 9, students are provided with opportunities to view media work from contemporary and past times to explore viewpoints from Australian and/or international media work. They consider the impact context and audience have on media work, and explore the impact of trends on how audiences use media.

Students extend and refine their skills and processes for problem-solving, working as a team, following timelines and using processes and strategies to ensure safe and responsible use of media equipment.

Teachers are required to address knowledge and skills in Media Arts through one or more of the foci and media below. Other foci and media may be used in addition to teach knowledge and skills in Media Arts.

Media focus options may be either Media Fiction (for example, TV fiction, comics and graphic novels, magazines) or Media Non-Fiction (for example, documentaries, news stories, current affairs stories).

Students are expected to work within, or across, the following media in each year level: film, television, photography, print media, radio or online media.

The Arts - Visual Arts

In Year 9, students use Visual Arts language and artistic conventions of greater complexity during their design and production process. They document their ideas applying understanding of compositional structure to create a unique personal response, while representing either a theme/concept or subject matter. Students experience, adapt and manipulate materials, techniques, art styles/processes when producing 2D and/or 3D artwork which communicate artistic intention. Resolved artwork are displayed and appraised, with consideration to personal expression and audience. Students extend their knowledge and use of safe Visual Arts practice.

Students experience a growing awareness of how and why artists, craftspeople and/or designers are influenced by other artists, their environment and the contexts of culture, time and place. They continue to apply knowledge of techniques used by other artists in the production of their own work.

Students are required to critically analyse traditional and contemporary artwork using various analysis frameworks, incorporating appropriate Visual Arts language, art terminology and conventions.

Teachers are required to address knowledge and skills in Visual Arts through one art form and art style below. Other art forms and art styles may be used in addition to teach knowledge and skills in Visual Arts.

Art forms:

  • 2D (painting, printmaking, drawing, photo and digital media, graphics, collage)
  • 3D (ceramics, sculpture, installations, textiles and jewellery)

Art styles:

Ancient art, Modernism (Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Op Art, Pop Art), Australian art, contemporary craftspeople, designers and photographers, urban art.